Covid & superbug references

No alphabetical order ; a reference can be found with the usual find/query tool

WHO & WikiMedia about trusted information about Covid

Unavailability of molecules

2. Sanders JM, Monogue ML, Jodlowski TZ, Cutrell JB. Pharmacologic treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a review. JAMA 323(18), 1824–1836 (2020). [Google Scholar]

 Owermohle S. No ‘magic pill’: the fight over unproven drugs for coronavirus (2020).

Studies specific for Covid

COVID-19 and therapy with essential oils having antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties
Asif M. & Col

Essential Oils as Antiviral Agents, Potential of Essential Oils to Treat SARS-CoV-2 Infection: An In-Silico Investigation
da Silva & Coll.

Patne T. & Coll

Bioactive molecules from eucalyptus essential oil as potential inhibitors of COVID 19 corona virus infection by molecular docking studies
Sharma A. & Coll

Phage therapy

Phages in the fight against COVID-19?
Gorsky A. & Coll

Bacteriophages Could Be a Potential Game Changer in the Trajectory of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)
Marcin W. Wojewodzic

Phages bearing affinity peptides to severe acute respiratory syndromes-associated coronavirus differentiate this virus from other viruses
Wang C & Coll

Bidimensional – or more- studies

« Astragalus ». NCCIH National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, US National Institutes of Health. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 1 July 2019

Su, Guobin; Chen, Xiankun; Liu, Zhuangzhu; Yang, Lihong; Zhang, La; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Wen, Zehuai; Guo, Xinfeng; Qin, Xindong; Liang, Jueyao; Liu, Xusheng (1 December 2016). « Oral (Huang qi) for preventing frequent episodes of acute respiratory tract infection in children »Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviewsdoi:10.1002/14651858.CD011958.pub2PMC 6463872PMID 27905672.

Liu ZG, Xiong ZM, Yu XY. [Effect of astragalus injection on immune function in patients with congestive heart failure]Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2003 May;23(5):351-3.

Gu W, Yang YZ, He MX. [A study on combination therapy of Western and traditional Chinese medicine of acute viral myocarditis]. . Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1996 Dec;16(12):713-6.

Huang ZQ, Qin NP, Ye W. [Effect of Astragalus membranaceus on T-lymphocyte subsets in patients with viral myocarditis]Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1995 Jun;15(6):328-30.

Yan HJ. [Clinical and experimental study of the effect of kang er xin-I on viral myocarditis]. . Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1991 Aug;11(8):468-70, 452.
14. Liu JP, Yang M, Du XM. Herbal medicines for viral myocarditisCochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(3):CD003711. Review.

Wu J, Wang YX, et alEffect of astragalus injection on serious abdominal traumatic patients’ cellular immunityChin J Integr Med. 2006 Mar;12(1):29-31.

Clinical study on effect of Astragalus Injection and its immuno-regulation action in treating chronic aplastic anemia. Wang MS, Li J, Di HX. Chin J Integr Med. 2007 Jun;13(2):98-102.

Weng XS. [Treatment of leucopenia with pure Astragalus preparation–an analysis of 115 leucopenic cases]Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1995 Aug;15(8):462-4.

Upton R, Ed. Astragalus Root: analytical, quality control, and therapeutic monograph. American Herbal Pharmacopoeia. États-Unis, 1999.

AMR Astragalus membranaceus. Monograph. [No authors listed] Altern Med Rev. 2003 Feb;8(1):72-7. Review. Texte intégral :

Immune system effects of echinacea, ginseng, and astragalus: a review. Block KI, Mead MN. Integr Cancer Ther. 2003 Sep;2(3):247-67. Review.

The effect of Echinacea purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus and Glycyrrhiza glabra on CD25 expression in humans: a pilot study. Zwickey H, Brush J, Iacullo CM et al. Phytother Res. 2007 Nov;21(11):1109-12.

The effect of Echinacea purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus and Glycyrrhiza glabra on CD69 expression and immune cell activation in humans. Brush J, Mendenhall E, Guggenheim A, et alPhytother Res. 2006 Aug;20(8):687-95.

Xiaofei Shang, Hu Pan, Maoxing Li, Xiaolou Miao, Hong Ding, « Lonicera japonica Thunb.: Ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of an important traditional Chinese medicine », Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 138,‎ 2011, p. 1-21

J.A. Taylor, W. Weber, L. Standish, H. Quinn, J. Goesling, M. McGann, C. Calabrese, « Efficacy and safety of echinacea in treating upper respiratory tract infections in children: a randomized controlled trial », JAMA, vol. 290, no 21,‎ 2003, p. 2824-2830 (PMID 14657066lire en ligne [archive], consulté le 18 février 2015)

Ronald B. Turner, M.D., Rudolf Bauer, Ph.D., Karin Woelkart, Thomas C. Hulsey, D.Sc., and J. David Gangemi, Ph.D.An Evaluation of Echinacea angustifolia in Experimental Rhinovirus Infections The New England Journal of Medicine Volume 353:341-348 July 28, 2005 version en ligne [archive]

Marlies Karsch-Völk, Bruce Barrett, Klaus Linde, « Echinacea for Preventing and Treating the Common Cold », JAMA, vol. 313, no 6,‎ 2015, p. 618-619 (résumé [archive])

V. Goel, R. Lovlin, R. Barton, M.R. Lyon, R. Bauer, T.D. Lee, T.K. Basu, « Efficacy of a standardized echinacea preparation (Echinilin) for the treatment of the common cold: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial », Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics, vol. 29, no 1,‎ 2004, p. 75-83 (PMID 14748902lire en ligne [archive], consulté le 18 février 2015)

Sachin A. Shah, Stephen Sander, C. Michael White, Mike Rinaldi, Dr. Craig I. Coleman, « Evaluation of echinacea for the prévention and treatment of the momon cold: a meta-analysis », The Lancet, vol. 7, no 7,‎ 2007, p. 473-480.

Sadigh-Eteghad S, Khayat-Nuri, Abadi N, Ghavami S, Golabi M, Shanebandi D, « ‘Synergetic Effects of oral administration of levamisole and Echinacea purpurea on immune response in Wister rat », Res Cet Sci, vol. 91, no 1,‎ 2011, p. 82-5.

Carr AC, Maggini S. Vitamin C and Immune Function. Nutrients. 2017;9(11):1211. Published 2017 Nov 3. doi:10.3390/nu9111211

Harvard Can vitamin C prevent a cold?

Jafari D., Esmaeilzadeh A., Mohammadi-Kordkhayli M., Rezaei N. (2019) Vitamin C and the Immune System. In: Mahmoudi M., Rezaei N. (eds) Nutrition and Immunity. Springer, ChamFirst Online31 July 2019 DOI Springer, Cham Print ISBN978-3-030-16072-2 Online ISBN978-3-030-16073-9

Stéphanie Gerbaka. Le cassis (Ribes nigrum L.) : études botanique, chimique et effets thérapeutiques.
Sciences pharmaceutiques. 2013. ffdumas-00844030f

Ashigai H, Komano Y, Wang G, Kawachi Y, Sunaga K, Yamamoto R, Takata R, Miyake M, Yanai T. Polysaccharide from black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) stimulates dendritic cells through TLR4 signaling. Biosci Microbiota Food Health. 2017;36(4):141-145. doi: 10.12938/bmfh.16-029. Epub 2017 Jul 4. PMID: 29038769; PMCID: PMC5633528.

Sforcin JM. Propolis and the immune system: a review. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;113(1):1–14. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2007.05.012

K. Wolska*, A. Górska, K. Antosik and K. Ługowska Immunomodulatory Effects of Propolis and its Components on Basic Immune Cell Functions

Sim W, Barnard RT, Blaskovich MAT, Ziora ZM. Antimicrobial Silver in Medicinal and Consumer Applications: A Patent Review of the Past Decade (2007⁻2017). Antibiotics (Basel). 2018 Oct 26;7(4):93. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics7040093. PMID: 30373130; PMCID: PMC6315945.

Wachtel-Galor S, Yuen J, Buswell JA, et al. Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi): A Medicinal Mushroom. In: Benzie IFF, Wachtel-Galor S, editors. Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects. 2nd edition. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; 2011. Chapter 9. Available from:


Vetvicka V, Vetvickova J. Immune-enhancing effects of Maitake (Grifola frondosa) and Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) extracts. Ann Transl Med. 2014 Feb;2(2):14. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.2305-5839.2014.01.05. PMID: 25332990; PMCID: PMC4202470.

Blanchard, J.-. Cinnamomum camphora à cinéole (ravintsara), une plante au service de la prévention des infections nosocomiales en milieu hospitalier ?. Phytothérapie 5, 15–20 (2007). April 2007 Issue DateFebruary 2007 DOI

Nathalie Koziol. Huiles essentielles d’Eucalyptus globulus, d’Eucalyptus radiata et de Corymbia
citriodora : qualité, efficacité et toxicité. Sciences pharmaceutiques. 2015. ffhal-01733789f

Schnitzler P, Schön K, Reichling J. Antiviral activity of Australian tea tree oil and eucalyptus oil against herpes simplex virus in cell culture. Pharmazie. 2001;56(4):343–347.

Oleg V. Pyankov, Evgeny V. Usachev, Olga Pyankova & Igor E. Agranovski (2012) Inactivation of Airborne Influenza Virus by Tea Tree and Eucalyptus Oils, Aerosol Science and Technology, 46:12, 1295-1302, DOI: 10.1080/02786826.2012.708948

Garozzo A, Timpanaro R, Bisignano B, Furneri PM, Bisignano G, Castro A. In vitro antiviral activity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2009;49(6):806–808. doi:10.1111/j.1472-765X.2009.02740.x

Etude de la variation de la composition chimique de l’huile essentielle de Niaouli (Melaleuca Viridiflora Sol. Ex Gaertn. ) de Madagascar par Armand René Panja Ramanoelina

SFE Malaleuca viridiflora

Phytochemical Analysis and in vitro Antiviral Activities of the Essential Oils of Seven Lebanon Species Monica R. Loizzo, Antoine M. Saab, Rosa Tundis, Giancarlo A. Statti, Francesco Menichini, Ilaria Lampronti, Roberto Gambari, Jindrich Cinatl, Hans Wilhelm Doerr First published:20 March 2008

Jiang Liu, Jing ZhangFengWangXing-fuChenChemical constituents from the buds of Lonicera macranthoides in Sichuan, China Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, ISSN: 0305-1978, Vol: 54, Page: 68-70 Publication Year2014

Vincent MJ, Bergeron E, Benjannet S, et al. Chloroquine is a potent inhibitor of SARS coronavirus infection and spread. Virol J. 2005;2:69. Published 2005 Aug 22. doi:10.1186/1743-422X-2-69

Keyaerts E, Vijgen L, Maes P, Neyts J, Van Ranst M. In vitro inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus by chloroquine. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;323(1):264–268. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.08.085

Braga CB, Martins AC, Cayotopa AD, Klein WW, Schlosser AR, da Silva AF, de Souza MN, Andrade BW, Filgueira-Júnior JA, Pinto Wde J, da Silva-Nunes M. Side Effects of Chloroquine and Primaquine and Symptom Reduction in Malaria Endemic Area (Mâncio Lima, Acre, Brazil). Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis. 2015;2015:346853. doi: 10.1155/2015/346853. Epub 2015 Aug 18. PMID: 26357512; PMCID: PMC4556080.

Melles RB, Marmor MF. Pericentral retinopathy and racial differences in hydroxychloroquine toxicity. Ophthalmology. 2015;122(1):110–116. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2014.07.018

Golda A, Malek N, Dudek B, Zeglen S, Wojarski J, Ochman M, Kucewicz E, Zembala M, Potempa J, Pyrc K. Infection with human coronavirus NL63 enhances streptococcal adherence to epithelial cells. J Gen Virol. 2011 Jun;92(Pt 6):1358-1368. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.028381-0. Epub 2011 Feb 16. PMID: 21325482; PMCID: PMC3168281. Andrianne : « Le bourgeon de cassis, l’adaptogène de la gemmothérapie » from Académies de Naturopathie